On 7 April 2021, the Biden Administration launched its Made in America Tax Plan, which contained numerous enterprise tax proposals. The main proposals embody a rise within the company tax charge to twenty-eight%, a rise within the efficient tax charge on international intangible low-taxed earnings (GILTI) to 21%, making use of the GILTI regime on a country-by-country foundation, repeal of the exclusion from US tax of the ten% return on certified enterprise asset funding (QBAI), repeal of the deduction for foreign-derived intangible earnings (FDII) and substitute of the Base Erosion and Anti-abuse Tax (BEAT) with Stopping Harmful Inversions and Ending Low-tax Developments (SHIELD). In its plan, the Biden Administration was silent on whether or not it could retain the 80% limitation on utilization of overseas tax credit (FTCs) attributable to GILTI – typically known as the 20% haircut on GILTI FTCs.
On 13 May 2021, at a National Tax Association assembly, Dr. Kimberly Clausing, Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for Tax Analysis, acknowledged that the Biden Administration supposed to retain the 20% haircut on GILTI FTCs though Congress could take into account modifying it to, for instance, a decrease share haircut. Wesley Elmore, Foreign Tax Credit “Haircut” Maintained Under Biden GILTI Reforms, 171 Tax Notes 1089 (17 May 2021). Retention of the 20% haircut is important in taking a holistic view of the US worldwide tax system proposed by the Biden Administration.
As a part of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA), Congress considerably reformed the US worldwide tax system, making a hybrid between a territorial system and a worldwide no deferral system. This could be seen clearly by analyzing the completely different classes of earnings of a managed overseas company (CFC) of a US- parented multinational. Generally, a CFC’s earnings falls into one in all three classes: (1) subpart F earnings; (2) examined earnings/GILTI; and (3) the residual class. Subpart F earnings typically is cellular (overseas base firm gross sales or providers earnings) or passive earnings (overseas private holding firm earnings) of the CFC. Tested earnings/GILTI typically is the energetic overseas enterprise earnings of the CFC. And the residual class consists of the earnings representing a ten% return on QBAI. The United States’ taxation of the primary class of the CFC’s earnings – subpart F earnings – represents a worldwide no deferral system. The US taxation of the third class – the residual class – represents a territorial system – no US tax on that class of earnings. The US taxation of the second class — examined earnings/GILTI — is a cross between a worldwide no deferral system (no deferral of examined earnings/GILTI) and a territorial system (US successfully taxing solely half the earnings by way of a 50% deduction of GILTI).
On its floor, the Biden Administration’s enterprise tax proposals shift the US worldwide tax system nearer to a worldwide no deferral system with components of a territorial system, corresponding to retaining the preferential tax charge on GILTI. Upon nearer examination, nevertheless, the proposed system seems to be a de facto worldwide no deferral system. To illustrate, the Biden Administration has proposed repeal of the 37.5% deduction of FDII and the ten% return on QBAI, thereby taxing FDII on the proposed 28% company tax charge and the ten% return on QBAI on the proposed 21% efficient tax charge on GILTI. Retaining the 20% haircut on GILTI FTCs creates a break-even level on GILTI earnings of 26.25% (21% company tax charge divided by 80%), that means if the overseas jurisdiction’s company tax charge is beneath 26.25%, a residual US tax is owed on GILTI.
A break-even charge of 26.25% is remarkably near the proposed 28% company tax charge. The G-7 member international locations (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States) have a median statutory company earnings tax charge of 27.24% and a weighted common charge of 26.95%. The 37 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member international locations have a median statutory company tax charge of 23.51% and a 26.30% charge when weighted by gross home product. Elke Asen, Corporate Tax Rates Around the World, 2020, Tax Foundation, Fiscal Fact No. 735 (Dec. 2020). So, a overseas jurisdiction with a company tax charge of 26.25% (or increased) just isn’t uncommon, and amongst developed international locations, is possible. If home bills are allotted to GILTI earnings, the break-even level can simply attain 28% and, in some instances, considerably above 28%. The result’s, relying on whether or not the overseas jurisdiction has a company tax charge within the vary of 28% (or increased), the Biden Administration’s proposed US worldwide tax system is a de facto worldwide no deferral system.
Dr. Clausing was one in all 24 signatories to a letter to members of Congress in October 2015 advocating a worldwide no deferral system. Scholars Criticize International Tax Reform Proposals, 149 Tax Notes 149 (5 Oct. 2015).
Congress enacted the present US worldwide tax system in TCJA as a compromise between a territorial system and a worldwide no deferral system. While the Biden Administration’s proposals seem to maintain among the compromise, actually, it seems to swing the pendulum virtually fully to the worldwide no deferral finish of the spectrum.